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Sun Protection Factors

Have you ever thought about "sun protection factors"?
Now a days in the most parts of the world, excessive exposure to direct sunlight is potentially harmful. It can result in sunburn if a person does not wear sun protective clothing or use suitable sunscreen. Products with a higher Sun Protection Factor (SPF) level provide greater protection against ultraviolet radiation. The SPF of a sunscreen is a laboratory measure of the effectiveness of sunscreen— the higher the SPF, the more protection a sunscreen offers against the ultraviolet radiation that causes sunburn (UV-B).There is a popular misconception that SPF relates to time of solar exposure.
For example, many consumers believe that, if they normally get sunburn in one hour, then an SPF 15 sunscreen allows them to stay in the sun 15 hours without getting sunburn. This is not true because SPF is not directly related to time of solar exposure but to amount of solar exposure. Although solar energy amount is related to solar exposure time, there are other factors that impact the amount of solar energy, like the time of day. The protection from a particular sunscreen depends on factors such as:
  • The skin type of the user.
  • The amount applied and frequency of re-application.
  • Activities in which one engages (for example, swimming leads to a loss of sunscreen from the skin).
  • Amount of sunscreen the skin has absorbed.
The word "sunblock" in the marketing of sunscreens is controversial. The FDA has considered banning such use because it can lead consumers to overestimate the effectiveness of products so labeled. Sunblock typically refers to opaque sunscreen that is quite effective at blocking both UVA and UVB rays and uses a heavy carrier oil to resist being washed off. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are two of the important ingredients in sunblock. Unlike the organic sun-blocking agents used in many sunscreens, these metal oxides do not degrade with exposure to sunlight. The principal ingredients in sunscreens are usually aromatic molecules conjugated with carbonyl groups. In some cases Menthyl anthranilate is also used in sun screen. This general structure allows the molecule to absorb high-energy ultraviolet rays and release the energy as lower-energy rays, thereby preventing the skin-damaging ultraviolet rays from reaching the skin.  A sunscreen should also be hypoallergenic and noncomedogenic so it doesn't cause a rash or clog the pores, which can cause acne.
Sunscreens need to be applied thickly enough to get the full SPF protection. Sunscreens should be applied 15 to 30 minutes before exposure, followed by one reapplication 15 to 30 minutes after the sun exposure begins. Further reapplication is only necessary after activities such as swimming, sweating, and rubbing. Sun rays are strongest between 10 am and 4 pm. Sun rays are stronger at higher elevations (mountains) and lower latitudes (near the equator). Wearing a hat with a brim and anti-UV sunglasses can provide almost 100% protection against ultraviolet radiation entering the eyes.
Reflective surfaces like snow and water can greatly increase the amount of UV radiation to which the skin is exposed. Recent evidence indicates that caffeine and caffeine sodium benzoate increase UVB-induced apoptosis both in topical and oral applications.
Some home effective remedies for sunburn:
1. Drink plenty of water to avoid sunburn.
2.Don't apply any greasy substances on sunburn.
3. For minor sunburn, aloevera juice is good. Mix few drops of aloevera juice with lavender oil (few drops). Now fill a bottle with cool water in small quantity. Add juice and oil mixture into it. Shake it and apply to your skin.
4. Apply compress of whole milk to the burn area.
5. In some cases, Manuka honey gives soothing effect because of its anti inflammatory properties. Apply honey only to the damage parts of the body.
6. To relief pain use cool water with baking soda.
7. For face burn, mix fruit vinegar and olive oil in equal quantity and apply for 20 minutes.
8. Grated cucumber can apply all over face. It will give cool effect to your skin.
These home remedied are not suitable for sever  sunburn, remember to consult your physician in case of pain and fever.
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